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The effect of welding degree on geotechnical properties of an ignimbrite flow unit: The Bitlis castle case (eastern Turkey)

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dc.contributor.author Koralay, T.
dc.contributor.author Özkul, M.
dc.contributor.author Kumsar, H.
dc.contributor.author Çelik, S.B.
dc.contributor.author Pektaş, K.
dc.date.accessioned 2019-08-16T12:03:04Z
dc.date.available 2019-08-16T12:03:04Z
dc.date.issued 2011
dc.identifier.issn 18666280 (ISSN)
dc.identifier.uri http://acikerisim.pau.edu.tr:8080/xmlui/handle/11499/5872
dc.description.abstract Ignimbrites are associated with nearly most of the world's volcanoes and are defined as a deposit from pyroclastic density currents. They consist predominantly of pumiceous lapilli and blocks, and glass shards, which shows evidence of having been emplaced as a concentrated hot and dry particulate flow. These rocks are widely used as building stone especially in ancient buildings. Bitlis valley is covered by ignimbritic products, derived from Nemrut stratovolcano, one of the significant volcanic centers in Eastern Anatolia. The Bitlis ignimbrite is separated into lower level (LL), middle level (ML) and upper level (UL) according to color, welding degree and structural features. All three levels were used extensively in many parts of the Bitlis castle as masonry materials. Studies were carried out on mineralogical and geochemical composition and on physical and mechanical properties of the ignimbrites. In addition, a freeze-thaw cycle test was executed. There are no considerable differences in mineralogical composition among the levels of ignimbrite. All levels contain plagioclase, sanidine, pyroxene, and opaque mineral. In addition, anorthoclase and quartz are seen. In general, the LL of ignimbrite shows relic perlitic and eutaxitic texture, whereas eutaxitic and vesicular texture are commonly developed in the ML and UL, respectively. Lower, middle, and upper level ignimbrite samples display similar and limited compositional spread in terms of major oxide elements. They have trachyte composition. Building stones can be classified according to mineralogy, mechanical and physical properties and processing types. Mechanical and physical properties are very important with respect to stone quality/durability. The mechanical and physical properties of the ignimbrites are controlled by the welding degree. It was found that increasing welding degree from UL to LL correlates with increasing density, compressive strength and slake durability index and with decreasing porosity. The Bitlis ignimbrites have turned out as susceptible to freeze-thaw cycles. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
dc.language.iso English
dc.relation.isversionof 10.1007/s12665-011-0931-1
dc.subject Bitlis castle
dc.subject Building material
dc.subject Geotechnical properties
dc.subject Ignimbrite
dc.subject Welding
dc.subject Ancient buildings
dc.subject Building stone
dc.subject Eastern Anatolia
dc.subject Eastern Turkey
dc.subject Eutaxitic textures
dc.subject Flow unit
dc.subject Freeze-thaw cycles
dc.subject Geochemical composition
dc.subject Glass shards
dc.subject Ignimbrites
dc.subject Major oxides
dc.subject Mechanical and physical properties
dc.subject Mineralogical compositions
dc.subject Particulate flows
dc.subject Physical and mechanical properties
dc.subject Pyroclastic density currents
dc.subject Sanidines
dc.subject Slake durability
dc.subject Stratovolcanoes
dc.subject Structural feature
dc.subject Volcanic centers
dc.subject Building materials
dc.subject Compressive strength
dc.subject Crystallography
dc.subject Masonry materials
dc.subject Mineralogy
dc.subject Physical properties
dc.subject Quartz
dc.subject Silicate minerals
dc.subject Textures
dc.subject Thawing
dc.subject Volcanoes
dc.subject Mechanical properties
dc.subject building stone
dc.subject chemical composition
dc.subject compressive strength
dc.subject durability
dc.subject flow field
dc.subject freeze-thaw cycle
dc.subject geochemistry
dc.subject geotechnical property
dc.subject historic building
dc.subject ignimbrite
dc.subject masonry
dc.subject plagioclase
dc.subject porosity
dc.subject pumice
dc.subject pyroxene
dc.subject quartz
dc.subject sanidine
dc.subject stratovolcano
dc.subject trachyte
dc.subject vesicle
dc.subject volcanism
dc.subject welding
dc.subject Anatolia
dc.subject Bitlis
dc.subject Nemrut
dc.subject Turkey
dc.title The effect of welding degree on geotechnical properties of an ignimbrite flow unit: The Bitlis castle case (eastern Turkey)
dc.type Article
dc.relation.journal Environmental Earth Sciences
dc.identifier.volume 64
dc.identifier.issue 3
dc.identifier.startpage 869
dc.identifier.endpage 881
dc.identifier.index Scopus

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